Purdue University Calumet
Gyte Room 05
What you need to know
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SEXUAL VIOLENCE (Or ASSAULT): DEFINED
Sexual Violence (SV) is any sexual act that is perpetrated against someone’s will.
SV is divided into four types of sex acts:
- A completed nonconsensual sex act
- An attempted nonconsensual sex act
- Abusive sexual contact
- Non-contact sexual abuse
SEXUAL VIOLENCE/ASSAULT: TYPES OF SEX ACTS
- A completed nonconsensual sex act is defined as contact between the penis and the vulva or the penis and the anus involving penetration. This act also includes contact between the mouth and penis, vulva, or anus; or penetration of the anal or genital opening of another person by a hand, finger, or other object.
- An attempted (non-completed) sex act (described above) occurs when the act is against the victim’s consent, or involves a victim who is unable
- Abusive sexual contact is defined as intentional touching without the victim’s consent, either direct or through the victim’s clothing, of the genitalia, anus, groin, breast, inner thigh, or buttocks.
- Non-contact sexual abuse does not involve physical sexual contact. Non-contact sexual abuse includes acts such as voyeurism, intentional exposure of an individual to exhibitionism, unwanted exposure to pornography, verbal or behavioral sexual harassment, threats of sexual violence to accomplish some other end, or taking nude photographs of a sexual nature of another person without his or her consent or knowledge, or of a person who is unable to consent or refuse.
WHAT IF I AM THE VICTIM OF SEXUAL VIOLENCE/ASSAULT?
WHAT EMOTIONS OCCUR AFTER A SEXUAL ASSAULT?
- Sexual assault is a traumatic experience. A mixture of emotions (e.g. fear, anxiety, anger, depression, guilt, etc.) may occur after the sexual assault happens, and can have a lasting effect on the victim.
- As a result of the traumatic experience, a victim may experience symptoms of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)
- A victim is never the cause of their own sexual assault. Your appearance or gestures are by no means a signal for others to engage in sexual activities with you against your will.
Being under the influence of drugs and/or alcohol prevents you from giving consent to sex.
WHAT SHOULD I DO IF I’M A VICTIM OF A SEXUAL ASSAULT?
Call the Purdue University Calumet Police Department (open 24 hours a day) at (219) 989-2911 or dial 911 if you are off-campus. If you are off-campus and sexual violence occurs, still contact the campus police once you have returned.
Contact the following individuals:
- Linda Knox, Title IX Coordinator
Lawshe 231; (219) 989-3169
- University Village Staff-including RA’s
Peregrine and/or Griffin Hall; (219) 989-4150
- Dean of Students Office
SULB 313; (219) 989-4141
- Deans, Department Heads, or any person who has supervisory responsibilities such as RA’s, faculty members, and Human Resources may also be contacted.
WHAT SHOULD I DO IF I’M A VICTIM OF SEXUAL ASSAULT?
Any person who has experienced or witnessed sexual violence, discrimination and/or harassment should report the incident(s) as soon as possible.
Do not change clothes, bathe, shower or brush your teeth until medical treatment and a full medical evaluation has been completed. In addition, victims should be advised against use of enemas, changing or removing a tampon, sanitary pad or a barrier contraceptive before the medical exam. Although this may be difficult, this will help preserve evidence that can be used to prosecute the offender. Evidence collected within 24 hours of a sexual assault will be most accurate for analysis.
If you have been the victim of sexual assault or harassment, please know you are not to blame.
You may also contact the Purdue University Calumet Counseling Center (Gyte-5; 219-989-2366) and Student Health Services Center (Gyte X-34; 219-989-1235) for mental and physical health concerns.
Reports of sexual violence indicate an investigation as established through the Purdue Calumet Policy
POSTTRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER (PTSD)
Some symptoms of PTSD include the following (DSM-5, 2013):
- Re-experiencing the event. A victim may have flashbacks of the incident.
- Intense fear, anxiety, and stress when exposed to cues that represent the sexual assault. A victim may also experience an intense physical reaction when exposed to cues that remind the victim of the assault.
- Reoccurring thoughts, images, and/or perceptions that remind the victim of the assault.
- Feelings of numbness and an avoidance of stimuli that the victim feels is associated with the sexual assault.
It is completely your choice whether you want to take part in a full medical evaluation.
It is important to understand that each jurisdiction determines the maximum time interval in which evidence may be collected. This time varies from 36hrs to one week. It is presumed that in the future this time frame will be extended due to the reliability of DNA evidence.
Many ERs and Clinics in the US have established SANE (Sexual Assault Nurse Evaluation) programs for acute care following a sexual assault. Making sure such a professional is available is a good idea. Such professionals serve to:
- Expedite the Exam
- Improve the consistency and quality of evidence collected as well as ensure the “chain of custody”
- Have contacts within the state’s crime lab for screening for “date rape” or other drugs. Many states require any such testing be conducted in a state sponsored crime lab in order to be admissible evidence during a criminal hiring.
- Improve sensitivity for the victim during the process
- Link victim with Rape Crisis Centers
PREGNANCY PREVENTION FOLLOWING SEXUAL ASSAULT
Risk of Pregnancy following a single episode of vaginal intercourse between a woman and man(men) varies throughout the menstrual cycle. Since a woman’s menstrual cycle is often hard to predict, emergency contraception should be offered to any female assaulted where vaginal intercourse with a penis occurred. In cases where this is unknown emergency contraception should be offered as well.
There are a variety of birth control pills which when prescribed will provide for emergency contraception. Since this is medication is likely to cause nausea and potentially vomiting, a medication to combat nausea should also be prescribed.
PREVENTION OF SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED INFECTIONS AFTER A SEXUAL ASSAULT
Since the CDC and patient preference warrants prophylactic treatment (i.e. preventative treatment) for some Sexually Transmitted Illnesses (STIs), we recommend a victim be treated prophylactically for gonorrhea, chlamydial, and trichomonas infections.
Testing for STIs of victims immediately following an assault may not serve any purpose since prophylactic treatment is usually administered. Testing may also serve to discredit the victim in court, although some states limit the use of a victim’s sexual history during the criminal prosecution of the assailant.
If there is no history of Hepatitis B vaccination a victim should be given the first of three hepatitis B immunizations at the time of the medical exam following a sexual assault.
Prophylactic treatment with antiviral drugs for HIV following a sexual assault remains controversial. The risks and benefits of this should be reviewed with every victim of sexual assault where intercourse or any other exchange of bodily fluids has occurred. Current information suggests that Postexposure Prophylaxis (PEP) for HIV should be given within 4 hours of an exposure and probably should NOT be started after 72 hours
FOLLOW UP TESTING
A second medical visit should occur within 1-2 weeks after a sexual assault.
It should be confirmed that a victim is engaged with psychological counseling. If not, the reasons for counseling should be reviewed.
Pregnancy testing should be done even if treated with emergency contraception.
Screening for any symptoms related to STIs should occur and testing should be performed as indicated.
CDC recommends testing for HIV and Syphilis (RPR) should be performed at the follow-up medical visit, and then 6 weeks, 3 months, and 6 months afterward. Other intervals have been suggested. Testing of those on antivirals will require different testing.
Victims should abstain from sexual intercourse until prophylactic treatment is completed and use a condom until all testing is completed.
Those that began Hepatitis B vaccination should have a 2nd shot at 1month and the 3rd final shot at 6 months after the first shot.
HIV PREVENTION FOLLOWING SEXUAL ASSAULT
The overall risk of the assailant having HIV is likely unknown. However, some factors should be considered an increased risk for possible HIV transmission:
- Male on male sexual assault
- Sexual assault in a region or country with a high incidence of HIV infected populations
- Multiple assailants
- Anal sexual assault
- Sexual assault where either assailant or victim has trauma, bleeding, or genital lesions
VIOLENT CRIMES, VICTIM COMPENSATION ACTS
Most states in the U.S. have laws which provide victims with monetary compensation for medical and other expenses following a violent crime. The state a victim should apply for compensation is the state where the assault occurred.
Below are web sites for both Indiana and Illinois, however any state government web site should have such information under the search “violent crimes victim’s compensation”
RESOURCES FOR SEXUAL ASSAULT VICTIMS
The National Sexual Assault Hotline
The National Sexual Assault Hotline connects the caller with a crisis counselor. Services are free and will remain confidential and anonymous unless the caller chooses otherwise.
This hotline can be accessed online or through phone at 1-800-656-4673.
Rape, Abuse, & Incest National Network (RAINN) crisis center locator
You can find a local crisis center online or by calling 1-800-656-4673
National Suicide Prevention Lifeline
This 24/7 hotline provides services to those in a suicidal crisis or emotional distress. Services are free and confidential.
You may access this hotline through phone at 1-800-273-8255 or (para español) 1-888-628-9454. The National Suicide Prevention Lifeline may also be accessed through its website.
LOCAL RESOURCES FOR SEXUAL ASSAULT VICTIMS
The Purdue University Calumet Counseling Center provides a broad range of psychological counseling and educational services to members of the Purdue Calumet campus.
The Purdue Calumet Counseling Center is located in the Gyte Building (Room 5) 2200 169th Street, Hammond, IN 46323
Phone: (219) 989-2366
The Caring Place provides shelter and counseling services (free and confidential) for victims of domestic violence and sexual assault. Shelter is also offered for children of victims.
The Caring Place is located at 102 Washington Street, Valparaiso, IN 46383.
24-Hour Crisis Hotline: (219) 464-2128; (1-800) 933-0466
The Crisis Center, Inc. provides support, aid, and resources to those in crisis.
The Crisis Center is located at 101 N. Montgomery, Gary, IN 46403
24-Hour Crisis Hotline: (219) 938-0900 or (1-800) 519-0469.
RESOURCES FOR VICTIMS OF ABUSE, VIOLENCE, AND STALKING
The National Center for Victims of Crime
The National Center for Victims of Crime provides resources and advocacy for crime victims. Please visit their site for further information and resources.
The Stalking Resource Center is a program of the National Center for Victims of Crime. This center provides information and help for victims of stalking.
The National Domestic Violence Hotline
Crisis intervention, safety information, and referral sources are available to both domestic violence victims and those who are calling to help a victim of domestic violence.
You may contact the National Domestic Violence hotline online or by calling 1-800-799-7233.
HEALTH INFORMATION RESOURCES
American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Washington, DC: Author
Bates C.K. Evaluation and Management of Adult Sexual Assault Victims. Up to Date. Feb. 2011
Bates, C. K., & Lewis-O’Connor, A. (2011, February 8). Patient information: Care after sexual assault. Retrieved September 22, 2011
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2011, January 28). Sexual Assault and STDs. Retrieved August 31, 2011