The steel industry’s Technology Roadmap Program (TRP) was a collaborative R&D effort jointly supported by the steel industry and the United States Department of Energy (DOE). The TRP program was designed to develop new technologies to save energy, increase competitiveness, and improve the environment. TRP ran from July 1997 to December 2008, with a total program budget of $38 million. During that period, 47 R&D projects were performed by 28 unique research organizations; co-funding was provided by DOE and more than 50 industry partners. The projects benefited all areas of steelmaking, and much know-how was developed and transferred to industry. The American Iron and Steel Institute is the owner of all intellectual property developed under TRP and licenses it at commercial rates to all steelmakers. TRP technologies and results are in widespread use in the steel industry as participants receive royalty-free use of intellectual property in return for taking the risk of funding this research. Transformational technologies developed under TRP are continuing their development without government support. These have the potential to change radically the way steel is made and reduce energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions more than 50%.